Consultant


On the 11th November, 2012 WAWA Annual Prize & Scholarships distribution Programme was held in Abdul Qadeer Khan's Auditorium Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan.

Maulana Muhammad Idrees Khan, Chairman Ummah Welfare Trust was the chief guest and the function was presided by the Vice Chanceller Gomal University, Mr Mansoor Akbar Kundi.

The prestigious "SHAMLAWAR" of the yearAward was given to Noor Alam who had secured 997 marks in S.S.C

A record total of 10.357 million rupees were distributed amongst the deserving students

Maulana Muhammad Idrees donated one ambulance to WAWA for the people of Wana. Lastly he announced the establishment of 25 masjid maktab schools in Wana.



We are indebted to the following gentleman for their contribution (as mentioned against their names) in WAWA MERIT SCHOLARHIP-2012

OBAIDULLAH Rs. 800000 PESHAWAR (Organization for Peace & Development)

CH. IRFAN Rs.256832 ( CANADA)

Dr. SHAHWALI WAZIR Rs. 189120(AMERICA)

MR. KHALID KHAN Rs.100000(GERMANY)

SHEHZADA WAZIR Rs.100000(WANA)

HAJI SALAMAT KHAN Rs.100000( U.A.E)

GOHAR SAIF Rs.100000(KOHAT)

FAZL-E-ILLAHI Rs.50000(SARGODHA)

KAMRAN KHAN Rs.50000(PESHAWAR)



 

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Wana



Professor Arnold J. Toynbee in “Between Oxus and Jumna” refers to the northwest tribal belt of Pakistan as the nucleus of the “region between Oxus and Jumna [which] has been the theatre of decisive events in mankind’s history.” He characterizes the region as the “cross-roads” of civilizations. The tribal belt is “a tangle of difficult mountains intersected by long narrow valleys, innumerable gorges and torrent beds interspersed with patches of cultivable land.” There are rugged mountains with barren slopes as in Mohmand and Khyber agencies and rugged and complex hills and ridges as in South Waziristan. The mountain ranges are generally 1500 to 3500 metres high and the highest is the Sikaram peak 4755 metres above sea level on the Pak-Afghan border. Numerous dry and arid watercourses dissect these mountainous tracts. Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are areas independent of the four provinces of Pakistan, spread over some 27,220 sq km (10,507 sq miles). FATA neighbours Afghanistan to the west, NWFP to the east, and Balochistan to the south. The total population of the FATA was estimated in 1998 to about 3 million. FATA is divided into seven political agencies viz Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai, Kurram, North and South Wazirstan, and six Frontier Regions: Peshawar FR, Kohat FR, Bannu FR, D I Khan FR, Tank FR and Lakki Marwat FR. The administrative set-up of Khyber, Khurram, North and South Waziristan dates back to the time of British rule, while that of the other three agencies - Mohmand, Orakzai and Bajaur - and FRs was established after Independence in 1947. The autonomous status of FATA was accepted by Pakistan on its independence through the famous 'Instrument of Accession' signed by Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah at the Bannu Tribal Jirga in January 1948. The same was enshrined in all the constitutions of Pakistan. Under Article 247 of the Constitution, FATA comes under the executive authority of the Federation. Administratively, FATA enjoys a unique position whereby it is governed at the grassroots level through tribal representatives known as Maliks and Lungi Holders. There are a total of 3,616 Maliks and 3,441 Lungi Holders in FATA and FRs. A Malik/Lungi Holder is recognized by the government as a person commanding most authority and influence in his tribe, and is responsible for the maintenance of his respective area.

THE PASHTUNS 
The people living in the tribal belt are called Pashtuns, Pakhtuns or Pathans. There is little written evidence available about their ancient past. The earliest record about them is given by Herodotus (b.484 BC), Book 3, p.102, which says that “their way of life is almost the same as that of Baktrians [people of Balkh]. They are the most warlike of all the Indians….” The people around Paktuike are “the bravest of all the people in those parts.”
The Pathans are:

…proud to a degree, self-reliant only as their life can make them, hardy beyond measure and absolutely tireless. Their physical fitness would be incomprehensible if one did not consider the climate and country they live in, which allows no weaklings to survive. … Taken as a whole, the frontier tribes are unquestionably among the hardiest men on earth and so much the more redoubtable foes when war is afoot. Arthur Vincent, The Defense of India.

PUKHTOONWALI

The code which guides them has several unwritten laws and traditions but its main “maxims are those of mediation or protection (Nanawati), retaliation (Badal), and hospitality (Mailmastia).” 
Nanawati is the law of asylum, according to which asylum must be given to all fugitives, and even to bitter enemies if they come as supplicants. According to mailmastia he should show hospitality and protection to every guest. The badal imposes upon him the responsibility of wiping out insult with insult: i.e. ‘an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth’. The last element in the Pathan code of honour is the main cause of feuds and vendettas which may last for generations.


TRIBES

Among Pashtuns, there is a clear distinction between those who inhabit plains and those who live in mountains. The highlanders live in general area east of the plateau of Afghanistan and west of the plains of Pakistan. They conform to “patriarchal society where concepts of modern law and liberty find no place.” There are a number of tribes but the more famous ones are Yusafzais in Malakand and Bajaur Agency; Mohmands in Mohmand Agency; Afridis and Shinwaris in Khyber Agency, Peshawar and Kohat; Orakzais in Orakzai Agency; Turis and Bangash in Kurram Agency; Khattaks in east and southeast of Kohat; Wazirs in Waziristan Agency.

Waziristan territory roughly comprises area between the Kurram and Gomal Rivers. The region is bound to its western side by the Afghan districts of Birmal and Khost and the Bannu,Tank and Dera Ismail Khan districts of NWFP to its east. Olaf Caroe, writes in The Pathans “no empire of which we have any record has ever succeeded in making subjects of the tribes of Waziristan.” There are several tribes living in Waziristan, Wazirs need to be described.

THE WAZIRS

Wazirs take their name from reputed Ancestor wazir. Wazir was son of Sulaiman. Wazir had two sons named Khadri or khizri and lali (who fled, to escape vengeance for murder, to the northern slopes of the Sufed koh). Khadri had three sons including Musa, known as Darwesh, because of his religious piety and he also was an ascetic recluse. As a consequence a majority of the Wazirs are known as Darwesh khel wazirs. 
Wazirs. Sir Herbert Edwardes who was the administrator of Bannu and later became the Commissioner of Peshawar in 1853, describes about his first meeting with the chief of the “redoubtable” Waziri tribe. It is interesting to read his account as mentioned in his diary: 
“Mullick Swahan Khan, chief man among the neighbouring tribes of the Vizeerees (waziris], came into camp by invitation to see me. He is a powerful chief, and his country boasts that it has never paid tribute to any sovereign, but exacted it in the shape of plunder from all tribes alike. Swahan Khan is just what one might picture the leader of such a people: an enormous man, with a head like a lion, and a hand like a polar bear. He had on thick boots laced with thongs and rings, and trod my carpets like a lord. The Hindostanee servants were struck dumb and expected the earth to open. With his dirty cotton clothes, half redeemed by a pink loongee over his broad breast, and a rich dark shawl intertwined into locks that had never known a comb, a more splendid specimen of human nature in the rough I never saw. He made no bow, but with a simple “Salaam aleikoom” took his seat.” 

GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF WAZIR FAMILY

 

 

As to how Ahmed Zai Wazir came to Wana. The best answer will come through Johnston's "Notes on Wana" which he recorded in 1903 while he was posted in South Waziristan Agency as Political Agent. The same is reproduced here for a first hand information and knowledge about Wana and its People

RECORDED IN 1903. 

CHAPTER-I "The Wana Plain"

As regards the remote history of Wana, we have no definite information. Doubtless, being a broad, fertile and well irrigated plain, it was much used as a halting place and line of communication by the various tribes who in past times have swept down into Hindustan. But on this point the local history is silent. The first record we have is of occupation by the Marwat “tribe”, the majority of the tribe living in the hills now called Marwatis, and the section inhabiting the Wana plain. These, however, were soon dispossessed by the Nasirs, and the history of the last few generations is of the struggle between the Powindas and Darwesh Khel Wazirs. 

2. The Powindas are divided into Nasirs, Suleman Khels, Kharotis, Dotannis, Mian Khels and miscellaneous tribes, including the Kundis, Mianis, etc. The first two sections are the most numerous and powerful. As the customs and habits of the tribe are so well-known, it would be superfluous to give any further account here, but anything connected with this agency will be dealt with later in the chapter on the Powindas Migration.

3. The Wazirs, or to be more accurate the Darwesh Khel, Claim descent from one Musa, called Darwesh on account of his pious habits, and it is to the latter’s brother that we are said to have been indebted for the Mahsuds. The various ramifications of the Darwesh Khel tribe are shown in the appendix and will be dealt with later, but it is only with one small section enjoying 1/10th share in the whole tribe, the Bomi or perhaps Bahami Khels, that we have to do at present. This section is divided into three tribes, The Zilli Khel, The Taji Khel, and the Gangi Khels. The first is the largest, and the first two are by far the most important. These seem to have been forced out of Birmal and to have been leading a pastoral life in the hills round the Wana plain, whence again the growing number of the Mahsuds was tending to force them forward.

4. The situation was then, the Powindas occupying the Wana plain, and the Bomi Khel in the hills surrounding being pressed forward by other Wazirs coming up behind.

5. The affairs at this point have been so clearly stated in a note by the late Mr. A.J Grant that I cannot do better than give the history in his words:- “Several generations ago the influence of the Nasir Powinda tribe was predominant in Wana, and from Wana all along the Toi down to Toi Khulla, its junction with the Gomal. In the centre of Wana near the Dotananis ‘Starkot’ (or tribal fort) is still visible among the fields a raised line of ground showing the outlines of what is said to have been once a very large Nasir fort. The Dotannis then began gradually to acquire influence in the same neighbourhood and to share with the Nasirs the interests in these tracts. Thus most of Wana passed into the hands of the Dotannis, the Nasirs only retaining their control over isolated portions such as the upper kach lands on the left high bank of the Toi nearly opposite the Shin Warsak point, the Ghalzaiwala land at the foot of the Ghirzai peak and the Shpeshta land below Ghilzai on the left bank of the river. The Toi from Ghzha pazha to Sarizao remained entirely with the Nasirs, While the Dotannis acquired nearly the whole tract from Sarizao to Toi Khulla, with the exception of certain isolated ‘kaches’ such as Larwam or Dargaddai, which remain in the hands of Nasirs .While things were in this state about four generations ago, the Nasirs made a large and successful raid on the Wazir flocks at a place Tumanwam, near the head of the Urmana Nullah at the foot of Girni Sar. This raid provoked much bitterness and gradually spread into a wide feud between the two tribes, which was carried on with so much energy and determination by the Wazirs that the Nasirs were obliged to abandon their possessions in the Wana and Toi tracts. Speaking broadly, these possessions appear to have passed into the hands of the Wazirs without any successful protest or claim being made by the Dotannis to obtain them. This occupation of the Wazirs by conquest is, for instance, quite unchallenged by the Dotannis in the case of the upper kach and Shpeshta land in Wana and the kaches on the Toi between Gazhapazha and Sarizao .On the other hand the conflict of claims between the Wazirs and Dotannis as to certain of the Nasir “Kaches” in the lower Toi is due to the fact that the Wazirs here claim the same occupation by conquest while the Dotannis maintain that the old Nasir right were absorbed by themselves as pre-emptors or occupiers of the neighbouring lands. Thus in the case of the Dargaddai Kaches the Dotannis maintain that when the Nasirs had to leave, they (The Dotannis) bought up their interest and in Larwam a Nasir claimant asserts that he has continuously retained possession, living as a ‘hamsaya’ of the Dotannis, while the Wazirs in both cases claim the usual occupation by conquest. In the lowest part of the Toi from Spelipan to Toi Khulla the old Nasir claims seem never to have been absorbed by either the Dotannis or Wazirs, probably because this tract lies on the main Khajuri route, and was traversed each spring and autumn by huge Powindas kirris which rendered hopeless any attempt at cultivation. By the Settlement of 1895 these tracts fell to the Dotannis. Though apparently under the terms of Punjab Government letter No.823 dated 16th July 1895, the Nasir Claims here may still be considered to be reserved. Turning from these old times to more recent history we find that 40 years ago the only fort standing in Wana was the Dotannis “Starkot”. The Wazir grazed freely in Wana and neighbourhood and cultivated to a small extent for the Dotannis. Paying them owner’s right which probably reduced in amount as their own influence became stronger. The Zilli Khels were at this time associated with the Hassan Khels section of the Dotannis and Taji Khels with the Umar Khel section, who where the more powerful. Each of these sections handed over their right or perhaps (only the cultivating right) in the upper Ghwaekhwa land to the Wazir section with which they were associated. The Taji Khels then approached the Zilli Khels with the proposition that they should unite to construct a big watercourse to carry the Toi water on to this land. The Zilli Khels not agreeing, the Taji Khels alone carried out the work and enjoyed their share of the cultivation for a year or two after which the Zali Khels claimed their share in the water which the Toji Khels naturally refused to give and thus a dispute arose between the two sections. About this time, some 35 years ago, Karim Khan, father of the Malik Gulan, Sheikh Bazid Khel, who was then the most powerful Zilli Khel Malik built the Zilli Khel ‘Starkot’ on the Wana “Dag” land. The Dotannis would not allow the Wazirs thus to establish a permanent footing for themselves in the valley and calling in the assistance of the Suleman Khels made efforts to dislodge the Zilli Khels and destroy their fort. These attempts were continued unsuccessfully during two or three years until the Powindas determined to raise a final powerful combination in the following autumn to make sure of success. The Zilli Khels now approached the Taji Khels in “Nanawati” to invoke their assistance, but the latter made the abandonment of the Zalli Khel unjust claims to Ghwaekhwa a condition of their helps, and this the Zilli Khels refused. The Taji Khels there upon went off to Urgun, and agreed to assist the Dotannis and Suleman Khels in their impending attack. On the other hand, the Kharotis, who were it feud with the Sulmeman Khel over a murder case, threw in their lot with the Zilli Khels. In the fighting which occurred the next autumn, the Suleman Khels Dotannis and Taji Khels were thus arrayed on one side against the Zilli Khels and Kharotis. The Taji Khels, in view of their hostility to the Zilli Khels, made in consideration of their assistance to the Dotannis, thought it advisable and were allowed to build a tribal (Punjguna) Kot for themselves, which is still standing and occupied, not far from the ruined Dotannis “Starkot”. The autumn campaign began with a fight in the upper end of the Wana valley, in which the Zilli Khels allies were caught between two tires, being attacked by the Saleman Khels coming down from the mouth of the Dhana and the Taji Khel and Dotannis, who took position on the detached Dzha Ghundi rocks north of the Shin Warsak Spur. The Zilli Khel allies were defeated, fled and took refuge in their tribal Kot. The other side followed up their victory by driving off about 3,000 head of Zilli Khel cattle which they came up with below the Ghzha-pazha point. After this began a long siege of the Zilli Khel tribal kot, in which the assailants suffered the more severe losses, but were in the end successful in compelling the garrison to submission. The Zilli Khel allies were allowed to march out of the fort with their effects, and its walls were then razed to the ground, the Zilli Khels made it a condition of their surrender that the Taji Khels should, like themselves be forbidden to establish a permanent footing in Wana. The fall of this fort occurred about 32 or 33 year ago. In the following year the Zilli Khels determined to avenge the raiding of their 3,000 cattle, and having summoned to their assistance a Mahsud lashkar from Kaniguram, they carried off a large number of the Dotannis flocks. The leader in these reprisals was Bokai, the father of Muhammad Afzal Khan, and the then leading Malik of the Utman Khels. Not long afterward he was invited by the Dotannis to their ‘Starkot’ and treacherously murdered by them. To avenge his death the Zilli Khels sent for another Mahsud lashkar and destroyed the Dotnnis ‘Starkot’, its occupants fleeing for their lives to Tattai on the Toi. From this time onward the Wazirs began gradually, but surely, to usurp the leading position previously occupied by the Dotannis in Wana. The Dotannis lived mostly at Tattai and on the Toi. Those who remained in Wana were given shelter for two or three years in the Taji Khels tribal fort. After which they built up and occupied their Ghwaekhwa fort, the walls of which had been already built, but stood empty. As the Taji Khels did not abandon their tribal fort, the Zilli Khels determined also to make good their footing in Wana and within a year or two of the fall of the Dotannis ‘Starkot’ the Zilli Khel Kots of Gulan and Banocha an the upper Ghwaekhwa and that of Muhammad on the Toi left bank opposite were built. In establishing themselves thus the Zilli Khels were backed up by the (tacit) protection of Muhammad Akram Khan, Suleman Khel, who pocketed considerable sums of blackmail from them, and this it was which really assured their position. They were harassed nevertheless by the quarrels and jealousies of the Taji Khels until a few years later they made up their differences about Ghwaekhwa, the Zilli Khels obtaining the half rights they had claimed. From this time onward different Taji Khel and Zilli Khel Kots sprang up over the Wana plain and the disintegration of the Dotannis control set in rapidly. This was probably between 20 and 25 years ago. We learn form the evidence of the Dotannis themselves in many of their Wana claims notably that to the lower Ghwaekhwa land, how their grasp gradually relaxed. In the winter when their grazing kirris were occupying the Spin and Toi tracts they were able to hold their own, but each autumn when they came back from their summer quarters in Afghanistan, they would find that the Wazirs had made some more encroachments on their land. Thus at a period from 13 to 20 year ago most of their ownership rights in Wana passed out of their hands into those of the Wazirs nominally on mortgages. It is evident, however, both from the nominal amount of the mortgages and from the admissions of many of the Dotannis that the Wazirs would not allow them to reclaim, that the rights of the Wazirs were really held adversely. But the cultivation up to the period of four or five years before our coming to Wana still remained to a great extent in the hands of the original Dotanni owners, or, in the case of the Dotanni owners who belonged to the Powinda classes, in the hands of the original Dotanni cultivators. The alienation of the Dotanni lands in Wana by nominal mortgages rather than by sales appear to have been due to two causes - Firstly that it to some extent saved the pride of the Dotanni owners: and secondly that it left an opening for the original owners in case the Dotanni influence should once again become predominant in Wana to claim their own land under the rules of ‘Shariat”. The Dotanni position on the Toi, especially in the upper part near Tattai was also all this time not free from Wazir intervention. In the winter when their grazing kirris were present, the Dotannis could stand on their own bottom, but through the summer those who remained behind were too feeble to protect, themselves against Mahsud raids, and used to invoke the assistance of the powerful Zilli Khel Maliks such as Karim Khan Bokai, etc, who would send influential men of their section to remain with them in the Toi as guests and protectors: Thus the Zilli Kehls obtained a footing in the Dotanni Toi also, partly as genuine mortgagees and partly in virtue of the protection they afforded the Dotannis in the summer.

6. This brings the history of the Dotannis and Wazirs in Wana down to the period almost immediately preceding our arrival and occupation. In anticipation of our coming the Wazir felt them strong enough to put their own position in Wana on a more definite basis and stultify all Dotanni claims. The relation between the, two tribes up to the very time of our coming had been in all matters, including those connected with cultivated land, entirely tribal and not at all individual. Undoubtedly all alienations of Dotanni land to Wazir by the individual owners had been carried out with the tribal consent and sanction either express or by the waiving of their pre-emption rights. Even up to late years each autumn when the Dotanni Kirris came down in force into Wana the tribe had been able to recover from the Wazirs certain quantities of grain on account of land to which the Dotannis still laid claims, but the cultivation of which had long ago passed into the hands of the Wazirs, more often by implied than by expressed agreement. These sums were extracted from the Wazir by tribal pressure, by the effect of the united tribal strength of the Dotanni kirris. Thus in the autumn of 1892, The Dotannis assert that one of them Lagure, had got from the Zilli Khels Rs. 70 in cash or kind on account of his somewhat vague claim to the old Mehr Khan karez which had once watered this “Dag” land on which Zorawar had since built his kot without the Dotanni consent. In the autumn of 1893, however, a similar claim on the part of Lagur was met by the Zilli Khels with a direct refusal. The Dotannis there upon made an unsuccessful attempt to carry off some Zilli Khel cattle while a retaliatory raid by the Wazirs on the Dotanni flocks, was successful. The quarrel between the two tribes now became acute, Muhammad Akram Khan and other Suleman Khel Maliks came up to Wana from Zarmelan to try and mediate but were unsuccessful. The Dotannis were hemmed in their Ghwaekhwa Kot, and the Wazirs were encouraged to press them hard with the idea of establishing their sole possession in Wana before we came to occupy it. Under these circumstances the Dotannis could not hold out and fled to Tattai, and the Wazirs then destroyed the Ghwaekhwa Kot. The Dotannis could not sit still under outrage at so critical a point in Wana history, and in the course of the cold weather they made arrangement with the other Powinda section to make a combined “tora” on Wana on their way up to Afghanistan in the spring of 1894. The Wazirs became much alarmed and came into Tank imploring our aid in effecting some compromise with the Dotannis. After much consultation and agreement was come to in Tank between the parties whereby the Wazirs were to pay Rs. 500 and 500 sheep to the Dotannis in compensation for the damages recently inflicted on them, the Dotannis were to be allowed to rebuild the Ghwaekhea Kot, and the disputed claims to landed rights between the two tribes were to be adjudicated by ‘Shariat’ The Dotannis there upon dispersed the combined “Tora” they had arranged, and in the spring came up to Wana to obtain the consummation of the agreement. The Wazirs began slowly making over to them the money and sheep which had been assessed to them in compensation, but only part had been paid a serious Mahsud raid under Jaggar, Abdul Rehman Khels, was made on the Dotannis in Tattai, several of them were killed and nearly all their plough cattle carried off. The Dotannis were then obliged to abandon for that year the cultivation of the Toi, which previously they had practically always carried out for themselves and the Toi Dotannis joined their other kirris, who broke off negotiations with the Wazirs and left at once for Afghanistan. They had good reason for believing that the Mahsud raid in Tattai had been organized by the Wana Ahmedzais and they determined that such a flagrant breach of faith should be signally punished. For the autumn of 1894, therefore, they, with much trouble and expense, made arrangement for a very strong combined ‘’Tora” of all the Powinda sections to ravage Wana and the Mahsud country. This “Tora” was stopped authoritatively by us before over occupation of Wana and we promised to see that Dotannis obtained there just right. If we had not taken action there is no doubt that Wana and the Mhasud country would both have suffered very severely: many of the Wana kots would have been destroyed and all the standing crops would have been laid waste. Our occupation of Wana in fact was timed exactly to suit the Wazirs and to save them from the just vengeance of the Powindas for their faithlessness”

I may add to Mr. Grant’s note that he made such a satisfactory settlement of the various claims that it has never from that day to this been questioned. The result is that except for one village and the surrounding lands known as Kot Dotanni, the whole of Wana is in the hands of various sections of the Darwesh Khels. Lower down the Toi, from Tattai to Toj Khulla, the Dotannis have still a considerable settlement, but, except for these and the quasi-settlement of Zarmelan, the occupation of the Powindas is entirely removed from the Agency. 

7. The Wazir now hold undisputed possession practically of the whole, but there can be no doubt that had not occupation of the country come in 1894, it would not have been long before the same procedure would have been enacted, the Mahsud taking the place of the Wazirs, and the latter sinking into that of the Powindas. 


CHAPTER-II"The Wana Ahmadzais and Their Land

8. The Darwesh Khels, as already stated, claim descent from the religious Musa. The practical man is not much concerned with their origin and still less with their ultimate destination, as that is a point which admits of no doubt.

9. They themselves say that they came from Afghanistan in the neighbourhood of Birmal, and the fact is quite possible. The tribe is not one of very great antiquity. Following out the internal distribution of the tribe, which follows strictly the principles of heredity, the sub section known as the Karmaz Khels is in the ninth generation from Musa. Up to this Karmaz Samandar, one of the chief Maliks, can trace his descent, name for name, making him his ancestor in the seventh generation. This makes fifteen generations in all from Musa to Samandar, who is a man of about 30. In the same way Mani Khan has traced to me his descent from Sperkai, and the two results practically tally. One might roughly then on this assumption date the original founder of the tribe from 400 years back, but this is hardly justified.

10. The Darwesh Khels are sometimes known as “Star” or great, Wazirs in contradiction to the Mahsuds but as the latter never use the name of Wazir in referring to themselves, it will be sufficient to adopt the common parlance and use the word Wazir only for Darwsh Khels. 

11. The Wazirs divide into two main sections the Utmanzai and Ahmadzai. The former have no dealings here, but as the Wana people, though only a small section of the Ahmadzai, have so intermixed their politics with the whole tribe, it will be more convenient to deal with the whole of the Ahmadzais. The latter are divided again into Sain, probably Hussain Khels and Kalu Khels. Among the Hussain Khels by far the largest and most powerful clan is that of the Hathi Khels under Khair Muhammad. The Sirki Khels of Wana also belong to the Hussain Khels, but they are so small in number that their influence is practically nil, and they follow their stronger neighbours. Among the Kalu Khels half are the Sperkais, Mani Khans’s clan and half the Shadi and Bomi Khels, who hold Shakai and Wana respectively. 

12. Between Mani Khan and Khair Muhammad there is no love lost, and even in his own tribe Mani Khan is not free from the troubling of Jalandhar Shah, the son of his elder brother. The Bomi Khels and Shadi Khels by ties of blood and kin follow the Kalu Khels, and accept Mani Khan’s leadership implicitly. 

13. The tribes in the Wana plain the Sirki Khels the Khojal Khels and the Bomi Khels, consisting of the Zilli Khels, Taji Khels, and Gangi Khels. The last, the Bomi Khels, are practically entirely in Wana, of the Khojal Khels a portion, and of the Sirki Khels only a few. 

14. The Wana plain itself is a large alluvial plain surrounded entirely by hills and receiving the water from the two large algads of the Bahmai and Dhana. Along side western and southern sides flows the Toi emerging from the plain at the south east corner. 

15. The lands in and connected with this plain may be roughly divided as follows:, The “Kachs” lands on the Toi, the “Dag” or higher plain land lying from the left bank of the Toi to Wicha Khwara in the Inzar Narni direction, and the lands by Tattai and Spin, the latter of which is a plain like Wana on a smaller scale. 

16. Of this land the Dhana is in possession of the Gangi Khels, Nearly the whole of the rich kach land on the Toi belongs to the Taji Khels the Zilli Khels have Spin, while the “Dag” lands are divided between the Zilli Khel and Taji and Gangi and Khojal Khels. It seems anomalous that while the Zilli Khel did all the fighting for Wana, the Taji Khel should have been able to take possession of the best land. As stated by Mr. Grant the Taji Khel joined the Powindas against the Zilli Khel, and during the cessation of hostilities the Taji Khel were able to acquire on mortgage the land in the “Kach”, the Dotannis recognizing that as they probably must eventually lose their lands they might make what they could out of them, while if they succeeded in conquering the Zilli Khel they could attend to the Taji Khel at their leisure. The Zilli Khel was thus left a very disproportionate share in the Wana plain, and according to the story, it was by the shortest of heads that they secured the ownership of Spin. 

17. The arrangement between them and the Taji Khel was that each tribe should work separately on a water course turning the Toi Water into the Zaranai Nullah, and that tribe which first brought in the water should have sole possession of Spin. The distance is about a mile, and day and night the worked carried on by every man, woman or child went on incessantly. Finally when the Taji Khel had only 20 yards of watercourse to complete, they heard the water poor into the nullah from the Zilli Khel wial. From that day they have never obtained an inch in Spin. 

18. As regards these individual lands, the “Kach” land starting from Shin Warsak have practically all been mapped and a Kishtwar register prepared. On the right bank of the Toi are the Ghoikho lands and Painda Khan karez. To these the same remark applies. It is on this Kach land that nearly all the villages and towers are situated. The land is very rich, well watered, and contains many trees, should it ever be desired to coerce the Wana people, an explosive party moving along the Toi could do lakhs of damage. 

19. The Dag land has been divided among the Taji Khel, Zilli Khel, Gangi Khel and Khojal Khels. The last received their share on account of assisting the Zilli Khels in their struggle with the Dotannis. The boundaries have been clearly fixed. The land to the south goes to the Taji Khels, the larger portion in the middle to the Zilli Khels, the portion west of Shin Warsak to the Gangi Khels, and the portion to the north up to Inzar Narai to the Khojal Khels. 

20. There is a small piece of cultivation west of Inzar Narai, which was claimed by all these clans, but by unanimous agreement in 1902 this was handed over to the Mughal Khels, to whom I gave the old levy post to live in on the condition that it should be considered outside the protectorate, and that they should make their own arrangements for its protection. Further down the Toi where it leaves the Wana plain, the land belongs to a miscellaneous collection. Mahsuds, Shakiwals and Hathi Khels all own portions. Below this again the land belongs to the Zilli Khels. The latter have just come to an arrangement that this land is not to be watered from the Toi, all the water of which is to go to Spin, except that the Faqir at the Ziarat is to receive a moderate amount. 

21. This Dag land is mostly alluvial plain covered into scrub. When irrigated it gives excellent crops. The portions of it are mostly known by the names of various Karezes which used to and some of which do now supply water to it. It is also watered by two wails know as the Shui and Kareza. 

22. By the present Wana fort is an excellent spring which provides abundance of water. This fort was built on the site of a Khojal Khel village, and the Khojal Khels are to this day sore on the subject of compensation, which they allege was far too small, as in fact it was. From the line drawn east and west of the fort the land to the west is all stony raghza. 

23. Spin itself belongs to Zilli Khels alone; they have lately portioned it and been constantly troubling over the interpretation and completion of this petition. The matter has been settled, but they will probably try to revive it. 

24. Following the Toi we have the land at Tattai, part of which have been given to the Darwesh Khels, the Dotannis, however, retaining the right to cultivate, and the Chinikho land higher up on a branch stream. The major portion belongs to Dotannis. The wazirs are always trying to do the Dotannis out of their cultivating rights, and have to be watched. 

25. To the north is the Dhana, consisting of a narrow valley well watered, and laid out in plateaus of excellent soil. To the east of that again is shakai at a considerably greater elevation, consisting of flattish land well watered, and opening into the Khisara Torwam.At the top of the Dhana is beautiful country, and all round by the Marwatis are possibilities of hill stations better than any have ever seen. 

26. Of the tribes in Wana the largest and most important are the Zilli Khels. Like all the other tribes, these are to be found in any numbers in Wana in the spring and autumn only, when they are chiefly in Spin, in summer they go to the hill and in winter some go the Kashmir kat, and others to the winter mela in Narshish near Murtaza. One of their sections, the Kaka Khel live almost entirely by grazing, while the Utmal Khels are also very largely indebted to their cattle for their livelihood. 

27. The Taji Khel go very considerably to Birmal and Kohat. They are always getting mixed up with the Khalifa of Murgha, who tried at one time to exorcise a co-ordinate jurisdiction in Wana affairs. They very largely take up commissariat, contracts and have the largest number of bad characters. 

28. The Gangi Khels are a comparatively small and very wild section, living mostly in the Dhana. They come little into Wana but are quite enough. 

29. The Khojal Khels have largely left Wana since their land was taken for the fort. They live around and about the village of Dobkot near the fort. 

30. The Sirki Khels have land in Kazhapunga above Shin Warsak, and also in the Ghoikho. Their best land in Talbana kach was taken rather unnecessary for the fort, and they have not yet taken compensation. 

31. There is a great dispute about Kazhapuhga. At the desire of all the Wazirs I put that outside the protectorate, but ordered that it was to be considered protected in so for as any unlawful violence was given to the Sirki Khels and that if any other tribe had a suit, it was to be settled by me by shariat. 

32. There is a dispute also about Manji Oba, but I am going to leave them to fight this out among themselves.
 
Education is the main sector where Wana Welfare Association (WAWA) is spending the bulk of its resources. A survey was conducted by WAWA in 2009 wherein all schools were physically examined and the fake records as maintained by the Agency Education Officer were not relied upon. The Government sector schools are presenting a dismally disappointing picture and it is mainly the private sector schools which are catering for the educational needs of the people. 

The total population of Wana Sub-division South Waziristan Agency as per 1998 census is 185792. Given the 2% annual increase rate the projected population of the sub-division is 231009 in 2009. According to 1998 census figures, age groups between 1-5 & 5-15 constitutes almost fifty percent of the total population of the sub-division. 

Considering various factors like the long distances to schools the survey team took age group 5-18 as school going age group. Taking a conservative opinion, this age group was approximated at 30% of the total population. So there are 69303 boys and girls in the age group of 5-18 years. Some very startling revelations are explained as under: 

  • Out of a total of 105 Government schools for primary education only 13 are functional where the total enrolment is 482. 92 schools are practically closed but for pay purposes, the agency Education Office is maintaining fake enrollment registers.
  • There are 13 Middle and eight High schools in Government sector in Wana Sub-division. All these schools are functional.
  • A total of 16521 boys and girls are going to various Government and private public schools in the sub-division.
  • Many Wazirs are settled in DI Khan and other parts of the country. Some have admitted their kids in various boarding schools of the settled areas. This figure was taken as 5% of the total 69303 and as such another 3465 boys and girls were added to 16521 as going to schools outside Wana. Thus from a total of 69303 boys and girls only 19986 are going to schools. Hence, the percentage of schools going children is 28.8% and 71.2% is completely deprived from education.
  • Female and male ratio has been worked out on the basis of 1998 sex division of South Waziristan Agency which is 100 Female : 116 Male. Thus out of a total of 69303 of age group 5-18 female population is 32572 and only 2700 are going to schools. This makes school-going girls ratio as 8.3% while out of a total of 36731 boys 17287 are school going which makes it 39% for the school going boys.
  • Out of the total 16521 school going boys and girls in the sub-division only 4330 are going to government sector schools. Thus, it caters for only 26.20% of the school education. 12191 students are going to the 25 public/private schools in the area. Millions are spent by the poor country on the education of the people while 73.80% are being educated in public/private schools in an area where poverty is the main hindrance in the education of the future generation
Classwise Enrolment and Status of School at Wana

Lying at the southern side of two Waziristans and named after the Wazir tribe, South Waziristan agency is the largest in size of all the FATAs. It has two head quarters; Tank is the winter headquarters of the agency while Wana is the summer headquarter. It is functioning since 1895 A.D. It joint the border of North Waziristan agency towards North, District Zhobe (Balochistan) on its south and Afghanistan on its west
LOCATION 
The agency lies between 31-49 to 32-48 North Latitude and 69-15 to 70-28 east longitudes. 
AREA AND POPULATION 
The total population of the agency is 429841 spreading over a total area of 6619 square kilometers.


PHYSICAL FEATURES AND TOPOGRAPHY

Physical Features
The Agency is mostly a mass of rugged and complex hills and ridges. The are no regular mountains alignments. The land rises gradually from south and east to north and west. The dominating range is Preghal in the west along the border with Afghanistan. It is the highest peak. Zarmelan, Wana, Shakki, Zalai, Spin and Tiarza are the main plains of the agency. The literacy rate is very low and the majority has no access to basic needs of life. 

Soil
The terrain is hilly. It consists of narrow valleys, small plateaus and high mountains. The little cultivable land is in the form of terrace or the reclaimed land along Nullahs. But unlike Ladha and Sarwakai sub division, Wana Consists of vast plains that have great promise to agriculture development.



Climate
The agency has hot summer and very cold winters. In winters the mercury goes below freezing points at places of high altitude. The summer season starts in May and ends by September. June is generally the warmest month when the maximum temperature is slightly over 30 degrees centigrade. The winter starts in October and continues till April. December, January and February are the coldest months. The maximum and minimum temperatures of this period are 10 and 2 degree centigrade respectively. 

The agency is outside the monsoon zone, yet at higher altitudes fair amount of rainfall is received. South Waziristan Agency has an arid climate for the most part and receives little precipitation generally. The western portion bordering Afghanistan receives more rainfall than the eastern portion touching Tank and D.I.Khan District. Most of the agency receives mean annual rainfall of 06 inches, while a small piece in the south eastern corner receives less than 10 inches annually. 

The main source of irrigation is river, streams and dug well / tube wells in the agency. Since there is paucity of agricultural land in the hilly area, therefore ratio of agriculture in Sarwakai and Ladha Sub-Divisions is less than Wana Sub Division